The Niagara Region is located on a portion of a great plain which runs east to west from the northern Laurentian Highlands (Canadian Shield) approximately 161 kilometres north of Toronto, Ontario to the southern Allegheny Plateau which form the foothills of the Adirondack Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains.
The Niagara land mass extends 100 kilometres, both east and west from the Niagara River.
This plain is a small part of the Great Lakes low lands in which Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, Lake Erie and Lake Ontario lie.
Climate in Niagara has been similar to the current weather patterns for the past 5,000 years. These weather patterns are:
In the spring season, the daily high temperatures range from 5° to 19° degrees Celsius. Nightly temperatures range from -3° to 8° degrees Celsius. Snowfall season usually ends by mid-April. Lake Erie ice and water temperature may effect surrounding land mass with cooler than normal breezes. Mixed weather patterns prevail.
In the summer season, the daily high temperatures range from 25° to 21° degrees Celsius (75º to 81° degrees Fahrenheit ). Nightly temperatures range from 14° to 17° degrees Celsius (57° to 63° degrees Fahrenheit). Weather is generally bright and sunny. Rain storms, which are seldom severe, are moderated by nearby Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. In summer, lake waters are normally cooler than air temperature. Lake Erie’s water temperature normally ranges from 22° to 25° degrees Celsius (73° to 77° degrees Fahrenheit). Cooling lake breezes are often a relief from sometimes hot and humid weather experienced in summer.
In the autumn season, the daily high temperatures range from 22° to 8° degrees Celsius (72° to 46° degrees Fahrenheit). Nightly temperatures range from 13° to 1° degrees Celsius (55° to 34° degrees Fahrenheit). It is usually unlikely for snow prior to the end of October. First killing frost and/or snowfall is expected by late October or early November. Mixed weather patterns prevail.
In the winter season, the daily high temperatures in range from 2° to -0.9° degrees Celsius (36° to 30° degrees Fahrenheit). Nightly temperatures range from -4.5° to -8.2° degrees Celsius (24° to 17° degrees Fahrenheit). Arctic high pressure generally dominates during the winter months bringing cold and clear days. Snow storms are infrequent, which leads the moderate snow. Lake effect snowfalls are mainly localized to areas near Buffalo and southward. When Lake Erie completely freezes over, usually during extended cold weather this eliminates the lake effect snow.
Today the Great Lakes hold twenty percent of the worlds fresh water supply. Ninety-nine (99%) percent of this water is of glacial origin.